PPCoin: Peer-to-Peer Crypto-Currency with Proof-of-Stake
Sunny King, Scott Nadal
( sunnyking9999 @ gma il. com, scott. nadal® gmail. com )
August 19 th , 2012
A peer-to-peer crypto-currency design derived from Satoshi Nakamoto's Bitcoin.
Proof-of-stake replaces proof-of-work to provide most of the network security.
Under this hybrid design proof-of-work mainly provides initial minting and is
largely non-essential in the long run. Security level of the network is not
dependent on energy consumption in the long term thus providing an energy-
efficient and more cost-competitive peer-to-peer crypto-currency. Proof-of-stake
is based on coin age and generated by each node via a hashing scheme bearing
similarity to Bitcoin' s but over limited search space. Block chain history and
transaction settlement are further protected by a centrally broadcasted checkpoint
Since the creation of Bitcoin (Nakamoto 2008), proof-of-work has been the predominant
design of peer-to-peer crypto currency. The concept of proof-of-work has been the
backbone of minting and security model of Nakamoto's design.
In October 2011, we have realized that, the concept of coin age can facilitate an
alternative design known as proof-of-stake, to Bitcoin' s proof-of-work system. We have
since formalized a design where proof-of-stake is used to build the security model of a
peer-to-peer crypto currency and part of its minting process, whereas proof-of-work
mainly facilitates the initial part of the minting process and gradually reduces its
significance. This design attempts to demonstrate the viability of future peer-to-peer
crypto-currencies with no dependency on energy consumption. We have named the
The concept of coin age was known to Nakamoto at least as early as 2010 and used in
Bitcoin to help prioritize transactions, for example, although it didn't play much of an
critical role in Bitcoin' s security model. Coin age is simply defined as currency amount
times holding period. In a simple to understand example, if Bob received 10 coins from
Alice and held it for 90 days, we say that Bob has accumulated 900 coin-days of coin
Additionally, when Bob spent the 10 coins he received from Alice, we say the coin age
Bob accumulated with these 10 coins had been consumed (or destroyed).
In order to facilitate the computation of coin age, we introduced a timestamp field into
each transaction. Block timestamp and transaction timestamp related protocols are
strengthened to secure the computation of coin age.
Proof-of-work helped to give birth to Nakamoto's major breakthrough, however the
nature of proof-of-work means that the crypto-currency is dependent on energy
consumption, thus introducing significant cost overhead in the operation of such
networks, which is borne by the users via a combination of inflation and transaction fees.
As the mint rate slows in Bitcoin network, eventually it could put pressure on raising
transaction fees to sustain a preferred level of security. One naturally asks whether we
must maintain energy consumption in order to have a decentralized crypto-currency?
Thus it is an important milestone both theoretically and technologically, to demonstrate
that the security of peer-to-peer crypto-currencies does not have to depend on energy
A concept termed proof-of- stake was discussed among Bitcoin circles as early as 2011.
Roughly speaking, proof-of- stake means a form of proof of ownership of the currency.
Coin age consumed by a transaction can be considered a form of proof-of- stake. We
independently discovered the concept of proof-of- stake and the concept of coin age in
October 2011, whereby we realized that proof-of- stake can indeed replace most proof-of-
work' s functions with careful redesign of Bitcoin' s minting and security model. This is
mainly because, similar to proof-of-work, proof-of- stake cannot be easily forged. Of
course, this is one of the critical requirements of monetary systems - difficulty to
counterfeit. Philosophically speaking, money is a form of 'proof-of-work' in the past thus
should be able to substitute proof-of-work all by itself.
Block Generation under Proof-of-Stake
In our hybrid design, blocks are separated into two different types, proof-of-work blocks
and proof-of- stake blocks.
(pay to stake
Figure: Structure of Proof-of-Stake (Coinstake) Transaction
The proof-of-stake in the new type of blocks is a special transaction called coinstake
(named after Bitcoin' s special transaction coinbase). In the coinstake transaction block
owner pays himself thereby consuming his coin age, while gaining the privilege of
generating a block for the network and minting for proof-of-stake. The first input of
coinstake is called kernel and is required to meet certain hash target protocol, thus
making the generation of proof-of-stake blocks a stochastic process similar to proof-of-
work blocks. However an important difference is that the hashing operation is done over
a limited search space (more specifically one hash per unspent wallet-output per second)
instead of an unlimited search space as in proof-of-work, thus no significant consumption
of energy is involved.
The hash target that stake kernel must meet is a target per unit coin age (coin-day)
consumed in the kernel (in contrast to Bitcoin's proof-of-work target which is a fixed
target value applying to every node). Thus the more coin age consumed in the kernel, the
easier meeting the hash target protocol. For example, if Bob has a wallet-output which
accumulated 100 coin-years and expects it to generate a kernel in 2 days, then Alice can
roughly expect her 200 coin- year wallet-output to generate a kernel in 1 day.
In our design both proof-of-work hash target and proof-of-stake hash target are adjusted
continuously rather than Bitcoin's two-week adjustment interval, to avoid sudden jump in
network generation rate.
Minting based on Proof-of-Stake
A new minting process is introduced for proof-of stake blocks in addition to Bitcoin's
proof-of-work minting. Proof-of-stake block mints coins based on the consumed coin age
in the coinstake transaction. A mint rate of 1 cent per coin-year consumed is chosen to
give rise to a low future inflation rate.
Even though we kept proof-of-work as part of the minting process to facilitate initial
minting, it is conceivable that in a pure proof-of-stake system initial minting can be
seeded completely in genesis block via a process similar to stock market initial public
Main Chain Protocol
The protocol for determining which competing block chain wins as main chain has been
switched over to use consumed coin age. Here every transaction in a block contributes its
consumed coin age to the score of the block. The block chain with highest total consumed
coin age is chosen as main chain.
This is in contrast to the use of proof-of-work in Bitcoin's main chain protocol, whereas
the total work of the block chain is used to determine main chain.
This design alleviates some of the concerns of Bitcoin's 51% assumption, where the
system is only considered secure when good nodes control at least 51% of network
mining power. First the cost of controlling significant stake might be higher than the cost
of acquiring significant mining power, thus raising the cost of attack for such powerful
entities. Also attacker's coin age is consumed during the attack, which may render it
more difficult for the attacker to continue preventing transactions from entering main
Checkpoint: Protection of History
One of the disadvantages of using total consumed coin age to determine main chain is
that it lowers the cost of attack on the entire block chain of history. Even though Bitcoin
has relatively strong protection over the history Nakamoto still introduced checkpoints in
2010 as a mechanism to solidify the block chain history, preventing any possible changes
to the part of block chain earlier than the checkpoint.
Another concern is that the cost of double- spending attack may have been lowered as
well, as attacker may just need to accumulate certain amount of coin age and force
reorganization of the block chain. To make commerce practical under such a system, we
decided to introduce an additional form of checkpoints that are broadcasted centrally, at
much shorter intervals such as a few times daily, to serve to freeze block chain and
finalize transactions. This new type of checkpoint is broadcasted similar to Bitcoin' s alert
Laurie (2011) has argued that Bitcoin has not completely solved the distributed
concensus problem as the mechanism for checkpointing is not distributed. We attempted
to design a practical distributed checkpointing protocol but found it difficult to secure
against network split attack. Although the broadcasted checkpointing mechanism is a
form of centralization, we consider it acceptable before a distributed solution is available.
Another technical reason entails the use of centrally broadcasted checkpointing. In order
to defend against a type of denial- of- service attack coinstake kernel must be verified
before a proof-of-stake block can be accepted into the local database (block tree) of each
node. Due to Bitcoin node's data model (transaction index specifically) a deadline of
checkpointing is needed to ensure all nodes' capability of verifying connection of each
coinstake kernel before accepting a block into the block tree. Because of the above
practical considerations we decided not to modify node's data model but use central
checkpointing instead. Our solution is to modify the coin age computation to require a
minimum age, such as one month, below which the coin age is computed as zero. Then
the central checkpointing is used to ensure all nodes can agree upon past transactions
older than one month thus allowing the verification of coinstake kernel connection as a
kernel requires no n- zero coin age thus must use an output from more than one month ago.
Block Signatures and Duplicate Stake Protocol
Each block must be signed by its owner to prevent the same proof-of-stake from being
copied and used by attackers.
A duplicate-stake protocol is designed to defend against an attacker using a single proof-
of-stake to generate a multitude of blocks as a denial- of- service attack. Each node
collects the (kernel, timestamp) pair of all coinstake transactions it has seen. If a received
block contains a duplicate pair as another previously received block, we ignore such
duplicate- stake block until a successor block is received as an orphan block.
When the proof-of-work mint rate approaches zero, there is less and less incentive to
mint proof-of-work blocks. Under this long term scenario energy consumption in the
network may drop to very low levels as disinterested miners stop mining proof-of-work
blocks. The Bitcoin network faces such risk unless transaction volume/fee rises to high
enough levels to sustain the energy consumption. Under our design even if energy
consumption approaches zero the network is still protected by proof-of-stake. We call a
crypto-currency long-term energy-efficient if energy consumption on proof-of-work is
allowed to approach zero.
We modified the proof-of-work mint rate to be not determined by block height (time) but
instead determined by difficulty. When mining difficulty goes up, proof-of-work mint
rate is lowered. A relatively smooth curve is chosen as opposed to Bitcoin' s step
functions, to avoid artificially shocking the market. More specifically, a continuous curve
is chosen such that each 16x raise of mining difficulty halves the block mint amount.
Over longer term the proof-of-work mint curve would not be too dissimilar to that of
Bitcoin in terms of the inflationary behavior, given the continuation of Moore's Law. We
consider it wise to follow the traditional observation that the Market favors a low-
inflation currency over a high-inflation one, despite of significant criticism of Bitcoin
from some mainstream economists due to ideological reasons in our opinion.
Babaioff et al. (2011) studied the effect of transaction fee and argued that transaction fee
is an incentive to not cooperate between miners. Under our system this attack is
exacerbated so we no longer give transaction fees to block owner. We decided to destroy
transaction fees instead. This removes the incentive to not acknowledge other minter's
blocks. It also serves as a deflationary force to counter the inflationary force from the
We also choose to enforce transaction fees at protocol level to defend against block
During our research we have also discovered a third possibility besides proof-of-work
and proof-of-stake, which we termed prooj ~- of -excellence. Under this system typically a
tournament is held periodically to mint coins based on the performance of the tournament
participants, mimicking the prizes of real- life tournaments. Although this system tends to
consume energy as well when artificial intelligence excels at the game involved, we still
found the concept interesting even under such situation as it provides a somewhat
intelligent form of energy consumption.
Upon validation of our design in the Market, we expect proof-of-stake designs to become
a potentially more competitive form of peer-to-peer crypto-currency to proof-of-work
designs due to the elimination of dependency on energy consumption, thereby achieving
lower inflation/lower transaction fees at comparable network security levels.
Many thanks to Richard Smith for helping out with testing and various network/fork
We would like to thank Satoshi Nakamoto and Bitcoin developers whose brilliant
pioneering work opened our minds and made a project like this possible.
Babaioff M. et al. (2011): On Bitcoin and red balloons.
Laurie B. (2011): Decentralised currencies are probably impossible (but let's at least
make them efficient), ( http://www.links.org/files/decentralised-currencies.pdf )
Nakamoto S. (2008): Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system.
( http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf )